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Dual deep modeling: multi-level modeling with dual potencies and its formalization in F-Logic

Authors: B. Neumayr, C. Schütz, M. Jeusfeld, M. Schrefl
Paper: Neum18a (2018)
Citation: Journal Software & Systems Modeling (SoSyM), Vol. 17, No. 1, Springer Verlag, ISSN 1619-1366, ISSN Online 1619-1374 (first online 2016, ehm. Neum16a), DOI:, pp. 233-268, 2018.
Resources: Copy  (In order to obtain the copy please send an email with subject  Neum18a  to

Abstract (English):

An enterprise database contains a global, integrated, and consistent representation of a company’s data. Multi-level modeling facilitates the definition and maintenance of such an integrated conceptual data model in a dynamic environment of changing data requirements of diverse applications. Multi-level models transcend the traditional separation of class and object with clabjects as the central modeling primitive, which allows for a more flexible and natural representation of many real-world use cases. In deep instantiation, the number of instantiation levels of a clabject or property is indicated by a single potency. Dual deep modeling (DDM) differentiates between source potency and target potency of a property or association and supports the flexible instantiation and refinement of the property by statements connecting clabjects at different modeling levels. DDM comes with multiple generalization of clabjects, subsetting/specialization of properties, and multi-level cardinality constraints. Examples are presented using a UML-style notation for DDM together with UML class and object diagrams for the representation of two-level user views derived from the multi-level model. Syntax and semantics of DDM are formalized and implemented in F-Logic, supporting the modeler with integrity checks and rich query facilities.

Keywords: Database modeling, Deep instantiation, Clabject, UML, Deep modeling notation